PSYC FPX4700 Assessment 1 Basics of Research and Statistics, Frequency Distributions, Percentiles, and Graphical Representations
Basics of Research and Statistics, Frequency Distributions, Percentiles, and Graphical Representations
Work through the problems listed below in this Word document. Do not submit any additional files. Provide examples of your work for problem sets requiring calculations. Make sure your solution to each problem is easy to see. To differentiate your response, you might want to highlight it or use a different typeface color.
Problem Set 1.1: Identifying Variables (Dependent, Independent, QuasiIndependent)
Criterion: Identify dependent and independent variables.
Instructions: For the following list of examples, identify the dependent variable and independent (or quasiindependent) variable.
In a group of cocaineinexperienced and cocainedependent mice, a researcher determines whether cocaine use causes an increase in impulsive behavior.
 Variable Independent: ___ Cocaine Use: A QuasiIndependent Variable
 Variable that Depends: ___ Impulsive Behavior __ A teacher determines whether students perform better on a fillintheblank or multiplechoice test.
 Variable Independent: ____ Type of Test: QuasiIndependent Variable:
 Subordinate Variable: ____ How students do on the test: A researcher looks to see if parents’ smoking habits have an effect on their children’s attitudes toward smoking.
 Free Factor: ___ Smoking parents QuasiIndependent Variable: _____
 Variable that Depends: ___ A social scientist investigates whether minors’ attitudes toward smoking differ according to political affiliation (Democrat or Republican).
 Autonomous Variable: ________
 Variable that Is Only Partly Independent: Affiliation to a political party: Dependent Variable: Moral stance ____ A cultural researcher looks at whether people from different cultures believe that dreams have meaning or not.
 Autonomous Variable: ________
 Variable that Is Only Partly Independent: Various Societies ____
 Subordinate Variable: ____ The beliefs
Problem Set 1.2: Understanding Sample and Population
Criterion: Describe the relationship between population and sample.
Instructions: Read the following and answer the question.
Height and level of education: Szklarska and others 2007) estimated that taller young fellows are bound to climb the size of instructive fulfillment contrasted and more diminutive people from a similar social foundation. They enrolled 91,373 nineteenyearelderly people men to take part in the review.
Are these individuals most likely a sample or a population? Explain.
The vast group of people from which a study draws its conclusions is called a population. A sample, on the other hand, is a smaller group of people chosen from the population to accurately represent the population under investigation and to be the source of data.
For instance, in research exploring level variations among individuals, the people picked by the scientists comprise an example got from a bigger populace of both taller and more diminutive individuals. To test the research hypothesis, only 19yearold men were recruited for this particular study.
Problem Set 1.3: Create a dataset for use in JASP
Criterion: Enter and display data for use in JASP.
Data: Five social media users spent the following number of minutes viewing Twitter:
15.21, 46.18, 12.45, 65.486, 26.852.
Instructions: Use the supplied data to complete the steps below.
 Open Excel.
 In cell A1, type Minutes. The variable of Minutes is continuous.
 In cells A2A6, enter the supplied data in the column labeled Minutes.
 Save your dataset as a .csv file
 Open JASP.
 In the sandwich menu, scroll down to OPEN, then select COMPUTER. Locate your .csv file and click it to open it.
 Take a screenshot of your data in JASP and paste it below.
Table 1
Number of Minutes Spent by Five Users
Problem Set 1.4.a: Grouped or Ungrouped
Criterion: Explain the identification of types of data.
There are two primary classifications for data sets:
 Grouped data
 Ungrouped data
Data that has been divided up into groups or class intervals is referred to as “grouped data.” This approach is oftentimes used for enormous datasets as it assists with fathoming the information circulation all the more really.
Individual values or numbers that cannot be divided into groups or intervals are referred to as “ungrouped data.” When precise data values are required for analysis or when the dataset is small, this method is typically used.
PSYC FPX4700 Assessment 1 Basics of Research and Statistics, Frequency Distributions, Percentiles, and Graphical Representations
Instruction: Fill in the table below. For each example, state whether it is grouped or ungrouped and why.
Example  Grouped or Ungrouped  Why 

The time (in seconds) it takes 100 children to complete a cognitive skills game.  Grouped  This data is suitable for grouping into class intervals, such as 1020, 2040, 4050, and so forth. 
The number of single mothers with 1, 2, 3, or 4 children.  Grouped  The information given comprises individual data points, indicating that it cannot be organized into class intervals. 
The number of teenagers who have experimented with smoking (yes, no).  Ungrouped  As the provided information consists of individual data points, it cannot be split into two groups. Therefore, it is classified as ungrouped data due to the absence of any grouping or categorization. 
The age (in years) of freshman students in a local college.  Grouped  The age of freshman students at a local college is a predefined category. The ages of the students likely fit within a range, and the group would be defined according to the age range. 
Problem Set 1.4.b: Understanding Descriptive and Interferential Statistics
Criterion: Explain the identification of types of data.
Instructions: Read the following and answer the question.
Gun ownership in the United States: Data from Gallup polls over a 40year period show how gun ownership in the United States has changed. The results are described in the table below, with the percentage of Americans who own guns given in each of 5 decades:
Year  % 

1972  43 
1982  42 
1992  48 
2002  40 
2012  43 
Source: Reported at http://www.gallup.com/poll/1645/Guns.aspx
Are these percentages an illustration of descriptive or inferential statistics?
The percentages presented here are an illustration of descriptive statistics because they describe the proportion of Americans with guns without attempting to infer any relationships between them.
In light of the rates given in the table, how has weapon possession in the US changed throughout the course of recent years?
The ownership of guns in the United States has fluctuated over the past forty years, but it has generally remained fairly constant. 43% of Americans owned guns in 1972, and 43% of Americans owned guns in 2012. In the intervening time, the percentage of people owning guns fell to 42% in 1982, rose to 48% in 1992, and then fell again to 40% in 2002.
Problem Set 1.5: Reading a Chart
Criterion: Locate data on a chart.
Instructions: Read the following and answer the questions.
Participant Characteristics Profession  Count  

Type  Token  
College Professor Clinical Psychologist Unknown  24,541 23,617 479  878,261 751,188 927  
Total  1,630,376 
Do the clinical psychologists or college professors in this sample speak more words overall (Token Count)?
In terms of statistical significance, College Professors make up 53.868% of the tokens in the sample, indicating that they speak more words than Clinical Psychologists, who make up 46.1313% of the tokens. According to the overall criteria, College Professors typically speak more than Clinical Psychologists.
Do the clinical psychologists or college professors in this sample use a greater variety of words (Type Count)?
In the given example, Clinical Clinicians represent 48.55% of the all out count of types, while School Teachers address 50.45% of the decisions in favor of utilizing various kinds of words. As a result, we can deduce that College Professors speak a broader range of languages than Clinical Psychologists do. Overall, the result demonstrates that College Professors speak more frequently than Clinical Psychologists and have a broader vocabulary.
Problem Set 1.6: Frequencies and Percentages
Criterion: Identify frequencies and percentages.
Instructions: Indicate which of the following descriptions is most appropriate: cumulative frequency, relative frequency, relative percentage, cumulative relative frequency, or cumulative percentage. Indicate whether cumulative distributions should be summarized from the top down or from the bottom up for these.
Data:
The recurrence of organizations with no less than 20 workers: From the top down, a summary of cumulative percent
The recurrence of undergrads with under a 3.0 GPA: ______ Cumulative Frequency and arranged in ascending order.
The level of ladies finishing 1, 2, 3, or 4 assignments at the same time: ____: Percentage Relative The percentage of pregnancies that are delivered in public or private hospitals: Relative Recurrence, summed up from the top down_____
The level of heavy drinkers with over 2 years of substance misuse: _______ From the top down, cumulative relative frequency is summarized.
Problem Set 1.7: Understanding Percentages
PSYC FPX4700 Assessment 1 Basics of Research and Statistics, Frequency Distributions, Percentiles, and Graphical Representations
Criterion: Identify distribution type and number of people.
Instructions:Peruse the accompanying and answer the inquiries.
How people see samesex marriage: A poll conducted by CBS News in June 2016 asked a sample of adults worldwide whether samesex marriage should be legal or not (reported at http://www.pollingreport.com). The following were the opinions of adults around the world: 58%, legal; 33% are illegal; and 9% who were unsure or did not respond.
Which kind of distribution is this? This is the relative percentage distribution. Considering that 1,280 adults across the country were polled, how many Americans thought that samesex couples should be allowed to marry legally? 742 Americans ______________________
Problem Set 1.8: Create an Ascending Frequency Table in JASP
Criterion: Create an ascending frequency table in JASP.
Data: Use dataset clicks.jasp. This dataset is a record of the number of clicks per hour in forty different tweets.
Instructions: Complete the steps below.
 Download clicks.jasp. In order to open the dataset in JASP, doubleclick the icon.
 In the Toolbar, click Descriptives.
 Click the Arrow to move it to the Variables box after selecting Clicks.
 Select “Tables.” Select Frequency Tables from the menu that appears.
 In the Word document, paste the frequency table of ascending values.
Note: You will continue to use this dataset in the next two problems.
Table 2
Number of Clicks Per Hour in Forty Different Tweets
Frequencies for Clicks  
Clicks  Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
0  3  7.500  7.500  7.500  
1  2  5.000  5.000  12.500  
2  6  15.000  15.000  27.500  
3  1  2.500  2.500  30.000  
4  3  7.500  7.500  37.500  
5  5  12.500  12.500  50.000  
6  4  10.000  10.000  60.000  
7  4  10.000  10.000  70.000  
8  8  20.000  20.000  90.000  
9  4  10.000  10.000  100.000  
Missing  0  0.000 

 
Total  40  100.000 

 
Problem Set 1.9: Construct a Bar Graph in JASP
Criterion: Construct a bar graph in JASP.
Data: Use dataset clicks.jasp. This dataset is a record of the number of clicks per hour in forty different tweets.
Instructions: To create a bar chart to examine the data, follow these steps:
You can get clicks.jasp. In order to open the dataset in JASP, doubleclick the icon.
In the Toolbar, click Descriptives.
Click the Arrow to move it to the Variables box after selecting Clicks.
Click Fundamental Plots, then, at that point, check Circulation Plots.
Copy and paste the following bar graph.
Discretionary to reply: What is the distribution’s shape? Asymmetrical.
Note: You will continue to use this dataset for the next problem.
Table 3
Bar Chart of The Number of Clicks Per Hour in Forty Different Tweets.
Problem Set 1.10: Construct a Pie Chart in JASP
Criterion: Construct a pie chart in JASP.
Data: Use dataset clicks.jasp. This dataset is a record of the number of clicks per hour in forty different tweets.
Instructions: To make a pie chart, follow the steps below.
You can get clicks.jasp. In order to open the dataset in JASP, doubleclick the icon.
In the Toolbar, click Descriptives.
Click the Arrow to move it to the Variables box after selecting Clicks.
Click Fundamental Plots, then, at that point, check Pie graphs.
 Copy and paste the pie graph below.
Table 4
Pie Chart of The Number of Clicks Per Hour in Forty Different Tweets.