SOC FPX 2000 Assessment 3 Social Activism and Data Analysis

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Contemporary Social Issues-Abortion

For contemporary society, one of the most controversial agenda is abortion. It means terminating a pregnancy by removing the fetus from the uterus. The issue is complex and multifaceted, with multiple viewpoints and opinions. The sexual revolution of the twentieth century gave rise to conflicting views and controversies, particularly about abortion. The Catholic Church has consistently opposed abortion, as evidenced by the particular instruction issued by the Vatican in 1987 and their firm stance at the 1994 Cairo Conference.

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Similarly, most countries are against abortion and family planning (Turgambayeva et al., 2018). In contrast, Protestant and Orthodox countries tend to be more tolerant. It is estimated that around 60 million abortions occur annually worldwide (Turgambayeva et al., 2018).

Importance of Abortion from Multiple Viewpoints

Abortion is an important contemporary social issue that holds its importance in different domains and has other points of view. It involves individuals’ fundamental right to decide about their life, including the decision to terminate a pregnancy. This is a matter of personal autonomy and individual freedom, essential in a democratic society. Another significance of abortion is the health concerns associated with it. The significance of safe and lawful abortion in safeguarding women’s reproductive health cannot be overstated (Yokoe et al., 2019). Get help for PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Abortion also raises other issues like gender equality; women have been deprived of their choices in abortion and control over their lives since the beginning. Women from low-income backgrounds and women from minority groups are more likely to face adverse effects of abortion restrictions since they have limited access to healthcare and encounter additional obstacles in obtaining safe and lawful abortions (Erdman, 2019). Moreover, abortion is a highly controversial topic with significant political and social implications (Baird & Millar, 2020).

Conflicting Perspectives Regarding Abortion

Three major conflicting perspectives regarding abortion include, on the one hand, people presenting their thoughts on abortion that women have the right to make choices regarding their lives. They assert that having access to lawful and secure abortion is essential for women’s reproductive health and self-determination. Furthermore, they argue that abortion should be a choice in rape, incest, or if the pregnancy endangers the woman’s physical or mental health. They opine that limiting access to abortion would impede women’s rights and lead to unsafe, illegal abortions (Yokoe et al., 2019).

On the contrary, critics of abortion present that it is a wicked act disregarding the sanctity of human life. They perceive that life commences at conception and that the fetus possesses the right to life. They additionally assert that abortion harms women psychologically and physically, and alternative options like adoption should be contemplated. They believe that limitations on abortion are essential to safeguard the interests of the unborn child (Zareba et al., 2020).

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Lastly, there are groups of people who hold a moderate view, recognizing the multifaceted nature of the matter. They believe that while abortion must be lawful and attainable, other efforts should be made to minimize the incidence of abortions by encouraging sex education, providing access to contraceptives, and extending support to expectant mothers. They believe reducing the need for abortions through prevention and support is better than restricting access to them (Terzungwe et al., 2021).

An area of common ground is the goal of reducing the need for abortions. Proponents of abortion believe that access to safe and legal abortions is necessary to protect women’s health and autonomy. In contrast, opponents of abortion argue that reducing the number of abortions is required to protect the rights of the unborn child. However, both sides can agree that reducing the need for abortions through prevention and support is a desirable goal. This could include promoting sex education and access to contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and support pregnant women (Terzungwe et al., 2021).

Analysis of Stakeholder’s Interest and Arguments

The stakeholders of abortion are individuals or groups interested in or affected by the issue of abortion. This includes the women undergoing the abortion, the men who are the potential fathers, and the government and its policies regarding abortion and its practice. The primary interest of women seeking abortions is their reproductive rights, health, and safety. They want access to safe and legal abortion services and the ability to decide about their bodies without government interference or judgment. They are also interested in receiving adequate healthcare and emotional support throughout the process (Yokoe et al., 2019). There are certain groups like pro-choice advocacy groups or pro-life advocacy groups. The pro-choice argues and supports the choice of women regarding abortion, while the pro-life group opposes it and supports the fetus being aborted (Rye & Underhill, 2020).

Men hold their interest in abortion as well; men who are the partner of the women undergoing abortion might be interested in supporting their partners’ reproductive health and the respect of autonomy is very important. They may also be interested in avoiding unintended parenthood, especially if they are unprepared or able to become parents. Moreover, they may be interested in avoiding an unwanted pregnancy’s financial and emotional costs. Some men may believe that life begins at conception and that abortion is equivalent to murder. They may also view themselves as protectors of the unborn child and think they must defend their right to life. Some may argue that men have no right to interfere in women’s choice of abortion; it is their autonomy, and they are the decision-makers (El-Ali, 2021).

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Additionally, the government is interested in abortion by protecting the health and safety of the citizen. This includes setting standards for the quality and safety of abortion services and establishing regulations on who can provide abortions and under what circumstances. The government also devises policies addressing both mothers and the fetus’s rights. Moreover, they can present their views and interests based on the public opinion and pressure they may need to take into account the pictures of different interest groups, such as religious organizations, pro-choice advocacy groups, and medical associations, to create policies that reflect the will of the people while also upholding legal and ethical principles (Baird & Millar, 2020). Proponents of abortion think that government has no say in abortion and that it is a matter of women’s rights and autonomy. At the same time, opponents present that abortion is a governmental issue and should be accounted for by the policies and guidelines set by the government (Baird & Millar, 2020).

Insight from Different Academic Disciplines

The topic of abortion is a multifaceted and contentious issue. Various fields of study, such as sociology, psychology, ethics, and law, offer valuable insights into the ongoing debate surrounding abortion (Wall, 2020). The pro-choice stance on abortion is predicated on the belief that women should be free to decide whether to terminate a pregnancy. The discipline of sociology has conducted studies that suggest that the provision of safe and legal abortion services leads to reduced maternal mortality and morbidity rates, as well as a drop in the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies and births (Latt et al., 2019). Owoo et al. (2019) reports that women primarily seek abortions due to personal and socioeconomic factors, such as financial insecurity, relationship difficulties, and insufficient support.

Conversely, the pro-life movement maintains that abortion is morally wrong and should be legally prohibited. Ethical research has established that the moral rights of the fetus are an essential aspect of the abortion argument. Some ethical theories project that the fetus possesses moral value and should be shielded from harm. In contrast, others argue that the fetus’s moral status is not equivalent to that of a fully formed human being and that a woman’s right to self-determination should be respected (Blackshaw & Rodger, 2021). Furthermore, research in psychology indicates that women who undergo abortions may experience adverse psychological consequences, such as depression and anxiety (Akbari et al., 2020). However, other investigations have found no significant differences in mental health outcomes between women who have undergone abortions and those who have not (Zareba et al., 2020).

Analysis of Abortion through Deontology

To analyze the issue of abortion, we will use one of the three normative ethics. Deontology refers to the act of doing something regardless of the consequences it will have. The social issue of abortion can be analyzed through deontology by considering the mother and the fetus. Through deontology, it can be projected that abortion is a morally incorrect action due to various reasons. One of the rules in deontology is that killing an innocent person is considered wrong (Smajdor et al., 2021). In deontological ethics, human life begins at fertilization when a fetus grows. Since the fetus has a unique genetic code, it is classified as a person, and killing it would be considered a wrongful act in deontology.PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

Additionally, causing intentional pain is considered wrong in deontological ethics. Having an abortion causes pain and suffering to the fetus, further reinforcing the idea that abortion is wrong. Even if the fetus is less than 18 weeks old, is not fully developed, and cannot feel anything, deontologists would still consider it wrong as it is stopping the fetus from having a life like ours (Blackshaw & Rodger, 2021).

PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues

We can use deontology to argue that ending a life is not always wrong, as it can lead to positive outcomes. For instance, if a young female is impregnated through rape and cannot raise the child, abortion may be the only viable option. In such cases, choosing abortion can be the right decision as it promotes personal choice and can positively impact the woman’s life. The woman should have the same moral rights as the fetus, and others should not judge her decision. The mother’s life is as valuable as the fetus’s (Watt & McCarthy, 2020). 

Deontology helps analyze social issues like abortion and its attached strings from multiple perspectives and viewpoints. However, the stance on abortion is a complex and personal decision shaped by many factors, such as personal beliefs, values, and experiences. It is crucial to consider different perspectives and evidence regarding this matter and arrive at an individual conclusion based on what one believes is ethical and fair.


The issue of abortion remains highly argumentative in contemporary society, with multiple viewpoints and interests. The importance of abortion is recognized from various perspectives, including personal autonomy, women’s health, and gender equality. Conflicting views on abortion range from those who assert women’s right to choose to those who see abortion as a violation of the sanctity of life. Stakeholders in the issue include women seeking abortion services, men who may be affected by unintended pregnancies, and governments who seek to regulate the practice. While there may be differences in perspectives, there is common ground in reducing the need for abortions through prevention and support, and efforts toward this goal should be pursued.


Akbari, A. R., Alam, B., & Ageed, A. (2020). The psychological impact of abortion as a predictive factor for pain experienced during medical termination. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 100(1), 181–181. 

Baird, B., & Millar, E. (2020). Abortion at the edges: Politics, practices, performances. Women’s Studies International Forum, 80, 

Blackshaw, B., & Rodger, D. (2021). If fetuses are persons, abortion is a public health crisis. Bioethics, 35(5). 

El-Ali, L. (2021). When men deprive women of their free will, they are not protecting anyone: They are obstructing God’s plan. Sustainable Development Goals Series, 87–91. 

Erdman, J. N. (2019). The gender injustice of abortion laws. Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters, 27(1). 

Latt, S. M., Milner, A., & Kavanagh, A. (2019). Abortion laws reform may reduce maternal mortality: An ecological study in 162 countries. BMC Women’s Health, 19(1). 

Owoo, N. S., Lambon-Quayefio, M. P., & Onuoha, N. (2019). Abortion experience and self-efficacy: Exploring socioeconomic profiles of Ghanaian women. Reproductive Health, 16(1). 

Rye, B. J., & Underhill, A. (2020). Pro-choice and pro-life are not enough: An investigation of abortion attitudes as a function of abortion prototypes. Sexuality & Culture, 24(6). 

Smajdor, A., Herring, J., & Wheeler, R. (2021). Deontology. Encyclopedia of Christianity Online. 

Terzungwe, D., Benjamin, Oojo N‟s, I. M., & Emmanuel, O. O. (2021). Influence of sex education on abortion prevention among adolescents in high level, Makurdi local government area of Benue state. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 05(07), 310–318. 

Turgambayeva, A., Khamidullina, Z., Baubekova, A., Dudnik, Y., Zhanaliyeva, M., Kasaeva, L., Seidakhmetova, Z., & Kamzaeva, N. (2018). Abortion and contraception as medical and social problems of modern. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 47(6), 925–927. 

Wall, J. (2020). Arguments about abortion: Personhood, morality, and law. Jurisprudence, 1–10. 

Watt, H., & McCarthy, A. (2020). Targeting the fetal body and/or mother-child connection: Vital conflicts and abortion. The Linacre Quarterly, 87(2), 147–160. 

Yokoe, R., Rowe, R., Choudhury, S. S., Rani, A., Zahir, F., & Nair, M. (2019). Unsafe abortion and abortion-related death among 1.8 million women in India. BMJ Global Health, 4(3). 

Zareba, K., La Rosa, V. L., Ciebiera, M., Makara-Studziska, M., Commodari, E., & Gierus, J. (2020). Psychological effects of abortion. An updated narrative review. Eastern Journal of Medicine, 25(3), 477–483. 


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