PCN 475 Topic 1 Psychological Stages of Development

PCN 475 Topic 1 Psychological Stages of Development

Cerebral Stages of Development

The focus of this paper will be to address the cerebral stages of development. Each stage of development in Erikson’sErikson’s proposition will be described. The stages in which a child and adolescent would be more susceptible to developing a substance use problem (and why) will be examined. Chronological and physiological factors that determine when a child becomes an adolescent will be bandied. Long-term physiological, cognitive, and cerebral consequences of substance use throughout the majority and how it can affect development within each stage of development will be reviewed. By better understanding how and why people change and grow, counselors are suitable to help their guests.

Erikson’sErikson’s proposition – Each Stage of Development

In the 1950s, psychologist Erik Erikson created his Stages of Psychosocial Development proposition. In addition to adding the part of social dynamics and the durability of psychosocial development into the majority, it expanded upon Freud’sFreud’s proposition of psychosexual development by drawing circumlocutions in nonage stages (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022). Eight consecutive stages of particular mortal development are proposed, with each stage being told by natural, cerebral, and social variables throughout the course of a continuance (Orenstein & Lewis). The epigenetic conception served as the foundation for Erikson’sErikson’s propositions. According to this proposition, humans develop in a series of ways that take place over time and within the frame of a broader community. The stages are as follows.

PCN 475 Topic 1 Psychological Stages of Development

Stage 1 Immaturity

Trust vs. Mistrust. The main factor impacting the growth of trust is the responsiveness and perceptivity of caregivers. A child’schild’s foundational sense of trust is erected through attentive caregiving. The psychosocial strength of stopgap is attained through this abecedarian sense of trust (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022).

Stage 2 Early Nonage or Toddlerhood

Autonomy vs. Shame/ mistrustfulness. According to Erikson, children can develop a sense of autonomy if their caretakers give them suitably directed openings to explore the terrain. Restraint/tone control is the psychosocial strength that can be developed in this position (Dunkel & Harbke, 2017).

Stage 3 Preschool or Play Age

Initiatives vs. Guilt. Children at this age begin to assert their dominance and control over the world by directing play and other social relations. The caregiver fosters the child’schild’s actions and interests by encouraging, fostering, and directing them. The benefit is that rather than feeling random, children gain a sense of purpose (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022).

Stage 4 School Age or Childhood

Industry vs. Inferiority. Children start to feel proud of their accomplishments and chops through social relations. Children must acclimate to changing social and academic prospects. Failure causes feelings of inferiority, whereas success fosters a sense of capability (Dunkel & Harbke, 2017).

PCN 475 Topic 1 Psychological Stages of Development

Stage 5 nonage

Identity vs. Role Confusion. Considered by some to be the most important stage. This stage is pivotal for the confirmation of a sense of particular identity that will affect a person’sperson’s guests and development for the rest of their life. During puberty, kiddies explore their independence and develop tone-mindfulness. Through particular discovery, those who are duly encouraged and corroborated will leave this stage with a keen sense of tone, as well as sentiments of independence and power. People who are still doubtful about their views and solicitations will feel uncertain and alive about the unborn (Malone et al., 2016).

Stage 6 Young Adulthood

Intimacy vs. insulation. Youthful grown-ups must develop close, enduring connections with others. While failure results in loneliness and broken connections, success leads to love and solid connections (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022)

Stage 7 Middle majority

Generativity vs. Recession. In this position, commerce with the coming generation takes the form of parenthood, coaching, or tutoring. Erikson allowed people launch to admit their mortality and suppose about their heritage around the time they reach middle age. This results in the generatively versus recession extremity. People can lean toward recession or a state of malaise, or they can try to ameliorate the lives of unborn generations — a process known as generativity. Care is the acquired cerebral strength (Malone et al., 2016).

PCN 475 Topic 1 Psychological Stages of Development

Stage 8 Late majority or Old Age

Integrityvs. Despair. Integrity versus despair is the final stage. A life review is begun, whereby people must reflect on their lives in old age with a sense of pleasure or remorse. Wisdom is the psychosocial quality that accompanies integrity (Dunkel & Harbke, 2017). Each of these stages has either virtuous or maladaptive outgrowth. When psychosocial development is disturbed, it can negatively affect a person’sperson’s capacity to operate. Any failings in the development of these capacities may be a factor in a variety of inimical issues, including substance abuse.

Stages When Further Susceptible to Developing a Substance Use Problem in Children/ Adolescents

 Dependence on substances and poor psychosocial development may go hand in hand. For case, a youthful person who finds it delicate to forge a solid identity may be more prone to turn to medicines in order to do so. Children are particularly vulnerable during transitions, similar to the heads encountered throughout psychosocial development, and it’s known that dislocations to overall development increase the chance of substance dependence (National Institute on Medicine Abuse,n.d.). According to one study, among those who battle substance use diseases, there there’s a correlation between cerebral issues and the age of original substance use.

PCN 475 Topic 1 Psychological Stages of Development

Actors’Actors’ psychosocial problems, including social capability and peer connections, were significantly worse for those who began using medicines or alcohol before the age of seventeen (Poudel & Gautam, 2017). Another study set up a link between early substance use and slower psychosocial development. Children who started substance use latterly showed important poorer enhancement in areas of psychosocial capacities than those who hadn’thadn’t used any substances, according to an exploration that followed third and fifth graders (Jones, 2011). In order to develop into healthy, functional individuals and to continue to develop as grown-ups, psychosocial development is pivotal. Substance abuse and dependence may affect when this process is intruded or doesn’tdoesn’t move forward strongly.


Counselors can more serve their guests by understanding the stages of development according to Erikson’sErikson’s proposition and any implicit excrescencies in the development of capacities. Every stage of development has its own difficulties and situations of vulnerability to substance abuse. Alcohol and medicines are frequently used, and abusing them has significant negative social, profitable, and particular goods on people, communities, and society at large. Consequences of substance operation include physical, internal, and cerebral problems. Counselors can help their guests more effectively if they have a deeper understanding of the processes by which people develop and change.


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Snyder, &G.R. Patterson( Eds.), asocial gests in children and adolescents A experimental analysis and the Oregon Model for Intervention(pp. 257 – 272). Washington, DC American Psychological Association Dunkel, C.S., & Harbke, C.( 2017). A review of measures of Erikson’sErikson’s stages of psychosocial development substantiation for a general factor. Journal of Adult Development, 24( 1), 58 – 76.


Johnston,L.D., O’Malley,P.M., Bachman,J.G., & Schulenberg,J.E.( 2011). Monitoring the unborn public results on adolescent medicine use Overview of crucial findings, 2010. Ann Arbor, MI Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Recaptured from


Jones,R.M.( 2011). Psychosocial Development and First Substance Use in Third and Fourth Grade Students A Short-Term Longitudinal Study. Child development exploration, 2011, 1-.

Malone,J.C., Liu,S.R., Vaillant,G.E., Rentz,D.M., Waldinger,R.J.( 2016). The majority of Eriksonian psychosocial development Sets the stage for late-life cognitive and emotional health. Dev Psychol. 52( 3) 496- 508. doi10.1037/ a0039875

McWhirter,J.J., McWhirter,B.T., McWhirter,E.H. & McWhirter,R.J.( 2013). Substance use and dependence. InJ.D. Hague,( Eds.), At threat youth. (pp. 195- 212). Belmont, CA Brooks/ Cole. ISBN- 139780840028594

National Institute on Medicine Abuse(n.d.) Principles of Substance Abuse Prevention for Early Childhood Why is Early Nonage Important to Substance Abuse Prevention?


Orenstein GA, & LewisL. Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Development. (streamlined 2022 Nov 7). In StatPearls( Internet). Treasure Island( FL) StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan.


Poudel,A., & Gautam,S.( 2017). Age of onset of substance use and psychosocial problems among individuals with substance use diseases. BMC psychiatry, 17( 1), 10.


Rosser,R., Stevens,S., & Ruiz,B.( 2005). Cognitive labels of adolescent threat taking A supplement of medicine abuse in at-threat individualities. Prison Journal, 85,83 – 86

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