NURS FPX 9902 Assessment 2

NURS FPX 9902 Assessment 2

Literature Search

The plan that will be used to conduct the literature search for this project that focuses on the provision of individualized CBT lessons and motivated questioning for opioid-addicted patients includes the following. A literature search in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library will have to be conducted.

The following terminology related to the PICOT question will be used: opioid addiction, cognitive behavioural therapy, motivational interviewing, client-centered treatment, and readmissions. To search for the articles, we can use Boolean Search operators like and/or and filter by year and by the type of articles, whether it is peer-reviewed or not (Hah et al. , 2020). The objective of the literature search is to find the most relevant and scientifically rigorous studies that investigate the effectiveness of the suggested interventions in decreasing return rates among the target population.

Literature Search Strategy

Several search strategies will be used to obtain all the needed books for the project on individualized CBT sessions and motivated interviewing for opioid-addicted patients. The following databases will be used for the search since they are relevant. Some of the search terms may include; Opiod addiction, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Motivational interviewing, Individualized treatment, Readmission rates and other related terms. Opioid-Related Disorders, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Motivational Interviewing as the MeSH terms will be used in the search to limit the articles to only those which are relevant to the study.

To narrow down the search, the Boolean operators like AND and OR and filters like the issue date and peer-reviewed will be used. MacLean et al. (2024) has also affirmed that in addition to the above, the reference lists of the included studies and other systematic reviews will be manually searched in order to identify other related literature. This will guarantee that only recent information is being included; therefore, all the sources to be used will be from the last five years. All the previous sources that are likely to be important, influential, and related to the project will be incorporated.

The first search is expected to generate a number of potential sources. The studies that will be included will involve adult drug addicts, will use treatments such as individualized CBT and MI, and will consider outcomes such as readmission rates. Those that are not published in English, those that involve children, or those of poor scientific quality will be excluded.

In addition to peer-reviewed articles, the search strategy will include systematic reviews, government reports, and, if needed, dissertations/thesis reports, which are referred to as “gray literature” (DeBar et al. , 2021). About 20 to 30 sources that are relevant to the study and of good quality will be retained for the literature summary after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. They will be analyzed and compiled to obtain information that will be useful in planning, implementing, and assessing the project. This will ensure that the method is rooted in the most current and accurate information available.

Analysis of Evidence

All the data was analyzed and 20 peer-reviewed papers were utilized in this study. These articles were selected because they relate to the PICOT question and have sound methodological quality. Various study designs were employed in the studies, including randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and qualitative studies.

The research was mostly about identifying the key results, trends, and evaluating the quality and strength of the proof. Based on these 20 articles, it can be concluded that the existing knowledge about the efficiency of CBT and MI for treating drug use disorder and chronic pain management can be easily outlined. Thus, based on the outcomes of the present study, certain conclusions can be drawn, and recommendations for practice and further research can be made.

Organization of Literature

From the literature that has been reviewed concerning the PICOT question the following themes are derived. First, DeBar and colleagues (2021), Gazzola and colleagues (2022), and Lent and colleagues (2021) have revealed that CBT and MI are effective interventions for people with opioid addiction or chronic pain. Also, the effectiveness of CBT and MI treatments has been discovered in managing pain, mental health, and drug use (Amin et al. , 2023; Zamboni et al. , 2021).

Secondly, the study establishes that attention should be paid to the modality of these interventions and the related costs in different healthcare contexts including primary care, hospital, and specialist care (MacLean et al. , 2024; Olmstead et al. , 2020; Zerden et al. , 2020). Hence, the cost aspect of CBT should not be overlooked when planning to apply CBT in the organization.

Today, anxiety and depression are the most studied topics. Third, CBT and MI seem to be useful in treating individuals with OUD who have other psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety (Buckner et al. , 2023; McHugh et al. , 2024). That said, there are certain areas of the knowledge gap, namely the impacts of treatments in the long-term and the possible differences in treatments among different groups of people or conditions.


The 20 articles that were selected for their relevance and sound research have revealed several major trends. The research also presents how it is necessary to consider how these treatments should be administered and whether they are cost-effective when using them in various hospital settings.

If you need complete information about class 8012, click below to view a related sample:
NURS FPX 8012 Assessment 4 Risk Mitigation


Amin, M., Reza Davasaz Irani, Fattahi, P., & Sirus Pakseresht. (2023). Effects of brief cognitive behavioral therapy on mental health in substance-related disorder: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry23(1).

Bertholet, N., Meli, S., Palfai, T. P., Cheng, D. M., Alford, D. P., Bernstein, J., Samet, J. H., Lloyd-Travaglini, C., & Saitz, R. (2020). Screening and brief intervention for lower-risk drug use in primary care: A pilot randomized trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence213, 108001.

Borsari, B., Li, Y., Tighe, J., Manuel, J. K., Gökbayrak, N. S., Delucchi, K., Morasco, B. J., Abadjian, L., Cohen, B. E., Baxley, C., & Seal, K. H. (2021). A pilot trial of collaborative care with motivational interviewing to reduce opioid risk and improve chronic pain management. Addiction, 116(9).

Buckner, J. D., Scherzer, C. R., Crapanzano, K. A., & Morris, P. E. (2023). Group cognitive behavioral therapy for substance use disorders among psychiatric inpatients in a medically underserved area: An intervention for opioid misuse. Public Health Reports138(1_suppl), 90S95S.

Buckner, J. D., Walukevich-Dienst, K., Crapanzano, K. A., Tucker, R. P., & Tynes, L. L. (2021). Brief motivational interviewing–based interventions for opioid misuse in hospital settings. Translational Issues in Psychological Science7(2), 114–129.

Darnall, B. D., Mackey, S. C., Lorig, K., Kao, M.-C., Mardian, A., Stieg, R., Porter, J., DeBruyne, K., Murphy, J., Perez, L., Okvat, H., Tian, L., Flood, P., McGovern, M., Colloca, L., King, H., Van Dorsten, B., Pun, T., & Cheung, M. (2019). Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain and chronic pain self-management within the context of voluntary patient-centered prescription opioid tapering: The EMPOWER study protocol. Pain Medicine21(8).

DeBar, L., Mayhew, M., Benes, L., Bonifay, A., Deyo, R. A., Elder, C. R., Keefe, F. J., Leo, M. C., McMullen, C., Owen-Smith, A., Smith, D. H., Trinacty, C. M., & Vollmer, W. M. (2021). A primary care–based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for long-term opioid users with chronic pain. Annals of Internal Medicine, 175(1).

Gazzola, M. G., Beitel, M., Cutter, C. J., & Barry, D. T. (2022). Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain and opioid use disorder. Elsevier EBooks, 235–246.

Hah, J. M., Trafton, J. A., Narasimhan, B., Krishnamurthy, P., Hilmoe, H., Sharifzadeh, Y., Huddleston, J. I., Amanatullah, D., Maloney, W. J., Goodman, S., Carroll, I., & Mackey, S. C. (2020). Efficacy of motivational-interviewing and guided opioid tapering support for patients undergoing orthopedic surgery (MI-Opioid Taper): A prospective, assessor-blind, randomized controlled pilot trial. EClinicalMedicine28.

Lent, M. R., Callahan, H. R., Womer, P., Mullen, P. M., Shook, C. B., DiTomasso, R. A., Felgoise, S. H., & Festinger, D. S. (2021). A mental health professional survey of cognitive‐behavioral therapy for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology77(7), 1607–1613.

MacLean, R. R., Ankawi, B., Driscoll, M. A., Gordon, M. A., Frankforter, T. L., Nich, C., Szollosy, S. K., Loya, J. M., Brito, L., Ribeiro, M. I. P., Edmond, S. N., Becker, W. C., Martino, S., Sofuoglu, M., & Heapy, A. A. (2024). Efficacy of integrating the management of pain and addiction via collaborative treatment (impact) in individuals with chronic pain and opioid use disorder: Protocol for a randomized clinical trial of a digital cognitive behavioral treatment. JMIR Research Protocols13(1), e54342.

McHugh, R. K., Fitzmaurice, G. M., Votaw, V. R., Geyer, R. B., Ragnini, K., Greenfield, S. F., & Weiss, R. D. (2024). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and opioid use disorder: Development and pilot testing. Journal of Substance Use and Addiction Treatment160, 209296.

McMorrow, M. C., & Chang, Y.-P. (2021). Motivational interviewing training for advanced practice nursing students to address prescription opioid use disorder. Journal of Addictions Nursing32(2), 141–151.

Olmstead, T. A., Yonkers, K. A., Forray, A., Zimbrean, P., Gilstad-Hayden, K., & Martino, S. (2020). Cost and cost-effectiveness of three strategies for implementing motivational interviewing for substance misuse on medical inpatient units. Drug and Alcohol Dependence214, 108156.

Silverstein, S. M., Daniulaityte, R., Miller, S. C., Martins, S. S., & Carlson, R. G. (2020). On my own terms: Motivations for self-treating opioid-use disorder with non-prescribed buprenorphine. Drug and Alcohol Dependence210, 107958.

Smedslund, G., Berg, R. C., Hammerstrøm, K. T., Steiro, A., Leiknes, K. A., Dahl, H. M., & Karlsen, K. (2011). Motivational interviewing for substance abuse. Campbell Systematic Reviews7(1), 1–126.

Wachholtz, A., Robinson, D., & Epstein, E. (2022). Developing a novel treatment for patients with chronic pain and Opioid User Disorder. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy17(1).

Zamboni, L., Centoni, F., Fusina, F., Mantovani, E., Rubino, F., Lugoboni, F., & Federico, A. (2021). The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy techniques for the treatment of substance use disorders: A narrative review of evidence. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease209(11), 835–845.

Zerden, L. de S., Guan, T., Lombardi, B. M., Sharma, A., & Garcia-Rico, Y. (2020). Psychosocial interventions in office-based opioid treatment: A systematic review. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research11(1), 103–131.

Zgierska, A. E., Burzinski, C. A., Garland, E. L., Lennon, R. P., Jamison, R., Nakamura, Y., Barrett, B., Sehgal, N., Mirgain, S. A., Singles, J. M., Cowan, P., Woods, D., & Edwards, R. R. (2021). Mindfulness-based therapy compared to cognitive behavioral therapy for opioid-treated chronic low back pain: Protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials110, 106548.

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