NR 328 Pediatric Nursing Hematological Disorders

NR 328 Pediatric Nursing Hematological Disorders


Hematologic dysfunction encompasses various disorders that affect the blood and bone marrow, which are integral components of the hematologic system. The primary hemopoietin organs involved in hematologic function are the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. Among the hematological disorders affecting children, anemia is the most common. Anemia occurs when there is a decreased number of red blood cells, leading to a reduced capacity of the blood to carry oxygen (Stanford Medicine, nod). This condition can manifest through heart murmurs, cardiac failure, growth retardation, and cyanosis.

Diagnosis of anemia typically involves conducting a complete blood count panel to assess the blood’s composition (Huckleberry, Wilson, & Rodgers, 2019). The management of anemia in pediatric patients is similar to that in adults. It may involve interventions such as administering IV fluids, providing oxygen, promoting bedrest, recommending iron-rich foods, and, if necessary, performing blood transfusions following hemorrhage.

NR 328 Pediatric Nursing Hematological Disorders

Another significant hematological disorder is Thalassemia, which is an autosomal recessive condition. Thalassemia can be inherited by offspring only if both parents are carriers of the gene. This disorder is characterized by reduced hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein) and a lower-than-normal count of red blood cells (Khatami, Fornix, Aydinok, & Viprakasit, 2020). Diagnosis of Thalassemia often occurs during infancy, and common symptoms include chronic hypoxia-related manifestations like irritability, headaches, bone pain, loss of appetite, and nosebleeds (Huckleberry et al., 2019).

Various types of Thalassemia can be identified through changes in red blood cell structure, electrophoresis testing, or observing the child’s failure to thrive. Treatment approaches for alpha thalassemia usually focus on managing symptoms and may not require specific interventions. On the other hand, beta thalassemia often necessitates lifelong treatment, including regular blood transfusions, possible stem cell transplants, and, in some cases, splenectomy (Stanford Medicine, nod).

NR 328 Pediatric Nursing Hematological Disorders

Understanding the different types of hematologic disorders and their management is crucial for healthcare professionals caring for pediatric patients. Timely recognition, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate interventions are vital for optimizing the health outcomes of children with hematologic dysfunction. By providing comprehensive care, monitoring blood parameters, and implementing targeted treatment strategies, healthcare professionals can help mitigate the effects of these disorders and improve the overall well-being of pediatric patients with hematologic conditions.

Hematological diseases are prevalent in both pediatric and adult populations, and it is essential to educate parents about these conditions to promote prevention, particularly for non-inherited diseases. By providing parents with information and guidance, they can take steps to minimize the occurrence of certain diseases. For instance, anemia can be caused by excessive milk consumption, so educating parents about the appropriate age to introduce cow’s milk (after one year) and the importance of incorporating iron-rich foods into their child’s diet is crucial. By following these recommendations, parents can help prevent anemia in their children.

NR 328 Pediatric Nursing Hematological Disorders

However, some hematological disorders are inherited or unavoidable, and in such cases, the focus shifts to effectively managing the symptoms and the overall condition of the child to prevent complications. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the specific hematological diseases, including their symptoms, associated risks, and available treatment options. By being well-informed, healthcare professionals can provide appropriate care and support to pediatric patients with these conditions, ensuring optimal management and improved outcomes.

This chapter has provided valuable insights into common hematological diseases in the pediatric population. It has highlighted the importance of educating parents about preventive measures and managing symptoms when prevention is impossible. By empowering parents with knowledge, healthcare professionals can work collaboratively with them to promote the well-being of children with hematological disorders. Through ongoing education and support, we can strive to minimize these diseases’ impact on pediatric patients’ lives and enhance their overall quality of life.


Huckleberry, M. J., Wilson, D., & Rodgers, C. C. (2019). Wong’s nursing care of infants and children. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Khatami’s, A., Fornix, G., Aydinok, Y., & Viprakasit, V. (2020, December). Changing patterns in the epidemiology of β-thalassemia. Retrieved January 23, 2021, from

Stanford Medicine. (nod). Beta Thalassemia in Children. Retrieved January 23, 2021, from

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