BIOL 1001 Week 4 Introduction to Biology

BIOL 1001 Week 4 Introduction to Biology


The purpose of this lab was to develop an understanding of Mendelian inheritance patterns and Punnett squares.


To prepare for the lab, the background document on inheritance was reviewed. The concepts of dominant and recessive alleles, gametes, phenotype, and genotypes were described. According to Belk & Maier (2019), an allele is a variant of the same gene that results from mutations. Dominant alleles overpower recessive alleles. During conception, the sperm and egg unite to form a zygote, with the male gamete being small and mobile, and the female gamete being larger and immobile. Phenotype refers to an individual’s physical appearance, while genotype determines their genetic makeup.

BIOL 1001 Week 4 Introduction to Biology Materials and Methods

The Inheritance Lab Background materials were read, and no additional materials were required. Various phenotypic characteristics were observed and recorded in a table. Based on the logic of Mendelian genetics, possible genotypes for each phenotype were identified and recorded. The possible pairings of parental genotypes that could lead to the observed phenotypes were also identified and recorded.

Preliminary Analysis 

A genetic trait can skip one or more generations without being apparent if it is recessive and masked by dominant traits. In order to observe unseen alleles in a child’s parents, one can examine the traits expressed in the child. By analyzing the child’s phenotype, information about the potential alleles carried by the parents can be inferred.

BIOL 1001 Week 4 Introduction to Biology Results

The chart below summarizes the observations of phenotypes, genotypes, and possible parental crosses:

Physical Characteristic | Your Phenotype | Your Genotype or Possible Genotypes | All Possible Parental Crosses

Earlobes: Free or Attached | e | ee, Ee | ee x Ee, ee x ee, Ee x ee, Ee x Ee

Dimples | d | dd, Dd | dd x Dd, dd x dd, Dd x dd, Dd x Dd

Tongue Rolling | T | TT, Tt | TT x Tt, TT x tt, Tt x Tt, Tt x tt

Second Toe Longer Than Big Toe on Foot | f | ff, Ff | ff x Ff, ff x ff, Ff x ff, Ff x Ff

Widow’s Peak | w | ww, Ww | ww x Ww, ww x ww, Ww x ww, Ww x Ww

BIOL 1001 Week 4 Introduction to Biology Analysis

The analysis of the results revealed interesting insights. The lab helped in understanding the inheritance of physical traits and how they are influenced by genetic factors. It was intriguing to analyze the relationship between my phenotype and genotype to determine the development of my physical traits. In terms of cellular basis, each component of my genotype is derived from one parent through meiosis, which separates homologous chromosomes and ensures the inheritance of different alleles for a particular gene. Punnett squares, similar to cell division, provide a visual representation ofthe possible combinations of alleles from each parent and predict the potential outcomes of genetic crosses. Mendelian logic, as demonstrated in this lab, is valuable for identifying hidden recessive genes and predicting future generations’ traits.


In conclusion, this inheritance lab provided valuable insights into Mendelian inheritance patterns and the use of Punnett squares to understand genetic traits. Through the analysis of phenotypes and genotypes, I gained knowledge about the development of physical characteristics and the contribution of alleles from each parent. The lab also highlighted the possibility of traits skipping generations and the dominance of certain alleles over others. As for future research, an interesting question to explore would be the extent to which cultural and environmental factors contribute to our phenotypes.


Belk, C., & Maier, V. B. (2019). Biology: Science for life (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc. 


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